A demyelinating disease is any circumstance that results in harm to the overprotective coating that surrounds nerves in your mind and spinal cord. This impairs the conduction of signals in the affected nerves, causing disability in superstar, campaign, cognition, or new functions depending on which nerves are involved. Multiple sclerosis is the most common demyelinating disease. In this disorder, your immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath or the cells that produce and maintain the myelin sheath. A number of other types of demyelinating disorders have been associated with optic neuritis. They are: acute transverse myelitis, Guillain barre syndrome, Devic's neuromyelitis optica, Charcot marie tooth syndrome, multifocal demyelinating neuropathy, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
Demyelinating diseases causes inflammation and wound to the sheath and finally to the nerves that it surrounds. The outcome may be dual areas of scarring, which can finally decelerate or halt heart signals that curb muscle coordination, power, superstar and imagination. The majority of plaques congregate along periventricular draining veins, but plaques also commonly occur within the spinal cord, optic nerves, brain stem, and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum. Plaques can also occur in the connecting pathways of subcortical white matter. Demyelination in gray matter may account for a large fraction of the lesion burden. Longer standing lesions are characterized by a total loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes, an intense astrogliosis, variable degrees of axonal loss, and a scant residual infiltrate of mononuclear cells, some of which are immunoglobulin-secreting B cells.
The diagnosis is made on the ground of the clinical signs and symptoms. The diagnosis of Multiple sclerosis requires evidence of the spreading of lesions in the system over moment and the cautious expulsion of new causes. Treatment of multiple sclerosis can be discussed in terms of the management of acute relapses, the prevention of relapses as modification of the disease process, and the management of symptoms and fixed neurologic deficits. A short, tapering course of oral corticosteroids may be given afterward. Equivalent doses of oral corticosteroids may have a similar effect, but treatment with lower doses is controversial. Treatment depends on the type of demyelinating disease but may include corticosteroid medications. Although corticosteroids have a short-term beneficial effect when used for acute exacerbations, their long-term effect on the course of multiple sclerosis is less clear.