|By: Dr.Kedar Karki|
Dr. Kedar Karki.
M.V.St.Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Central Veterinary Laboratory Tripureswor Kathmandu
Seasonal occurrence (mainly in October-November) of a disease syndrome locally called 'Kumri' meaning weak back was observed in goats in Banke and other districts of western Terai in the last few years. Traumatic injury to the lumbar region, nutritional deficiencies and parasitism in the spinal cord were the likely causes considered. Based on the epidemiological pattern viz; seasonal occurrence, clinical symptoms, afebrile condition and local nature of infection, and non response to supplementation of vitamins and minerals, the disease was provisionally diagnosed as cerebrospinal nematodiasis. This has been further substantiated through laboraotry of Seteria spp in cattle in this region, detection of microfilaria in affected goat and treatment response of affected goats with diethylcarbamazine. As adult seteria spp in cattle, Buffalo and microfileria from blood smears of affected goat confirmed the cerebrospinal nematodisease in goat in Nepal.
Kumri.Seteria-spp.Banke,Nepal,Diethylecarbamezine,Microfilaria,Goat,Mosquito,Culex,Postmonsoon disease.Cerbrospinal nematodiasis,Posterior paralysis,Epidemiology,
There was an outbreak of peculiar syndrome in goats in Kusum,Mahadevpuri,Kamdi, Kohalpur, Kachnapur Village Development Comities of Banke district of west region of Nepal was observed during October/November 2006.In this V.D.C. out of total population of 7434 Goats 2028 were affected by this syndrome when treated with diethylcarbamezine(Hetrazan) 1866 goats recovered and 162 died. During outbreak goats above twelve months of age were mostly affected. Typical clinical signs in affected goats were paralysis of one or both fore/ hind limbs, paralysis of Lumber region in coordination and swaying back gait. When hand fed affected animal seat normally and there was no systematic involvement,(no rise in Temperature diarrhea).Since year 1986-1987( Karki) reported same pattern of disease in this area with morbidity 25.30% and mortality 12-15% were recorded. When these animals were treated with diethylecarbamzan 10mg/kg disease entity started to disappear within 5-7 days, but there was 2-5% post recovery.
Review of Litratures;
Posterior paralysis (KUMRI) in goat is being considerd to be caused by a filarial parasite Setaria.Setaria labiatopapillosa(syn.Setaria digita,Setaria cervi normally occurs in the peritoneal cavity of cattle,buffaloes and deer.The parasite in the peritoneal cavity of these animals is not generallt pathogenic.However, the immature forms in non-natural hosts like sheep and goats causes cerebrospinalnematodiasis (Posterior Paralysis Kumri) with different neurological signs which is often fetal.Male parasites measures about 40-60mm and females measures about 60-120mm. Mrphologically,the peribuccal ring and dorsal and ventral prominances are distinct.Mouth opening is elongated.The tail of female terminates in a marked button,whichis divided into a number of papillae(Fig-1).The microfilaria is sheethed both anteriorly and posteriorly and measure about 240-260 microns(photo-1).Microfilaria are transmitted mechanically by culicine mosquitoes.The second stage of microfilariae are ingested by mosquito in which development of 3rd stage microfilaria takes place.These microfilaria are transmitted from mosquito to other animal by bite.In nono-natural host,after bite,micrifilaria may enter the spinal cord or the central nervous system leading to clinical manifestations of paralytic signs.The disease mostly occurs in the end of summer and autumn.(E.J.L.Soulsby., O.M. Radiostitis D.C. Blood C.C.Gay:A.K.Upadhyaya;Karki et.al).
The wide distribution of goat in Tropics and subtropics reflects their ability to adapt to a variety of environment. However the preferred environment is on the lighter sandy soil in the drier tropics rather they perform better and thrive in large number the inherent characteristic of goat such as resistance to dehydration, preference to browse and wide ranging feeding habit enables them to thrive in regions that receives less than 750 mm of rainfall (C. Devendra G. B. Mcleroy 1990.)In Nepal approximately 6080060 goats are being raised by small and marginal farmers out of that 491152 goats are being raged in western tropical past of (Statical information on Nepalese Agriculture 1997/1998) Nepal. Due to many ethnic group and religions believe 24.28 pp the male goat is preferred in comparison of other livestock product. ( C.L. Yadav 2000.) As the goats are considered as hardy and resistance to many infections disease but parasitic disease of goat are considered to be major cause of considerable economic loss, which arise primarily from the failure of parasitesd to grow or perform satisfactory several species of parasites are involved and the relative importance of species in a particular region varies with its agro climatic and husbandry practices. Since 1986-87There was an outbreak of peculiar syndrome in goats in Banke district of west region of Nepal was observed during October/November. Goats above six months of age were mostly affected. Typical clinical signs in affected goats were paralysis of one or both hind limbs, paralysis of Lumber region in Coordination and survey back gait. When hand fed affected animal seat normally and there was no systematic involvement,(no rise in Temperature diarrhea) with morbidity 15.20% and mortality 2-15% were recorded. On treatment with diethylecarbamzan 10mg/kg affected animal disease entity disappear with 5-7 days, But there was 2-5% post recovery deformity was recorded (Karki 1996). On treatment with diethylecarbamzan 10mg/kg affected animal disease entity disappear with 5-7 days, But there was 2-5% post recovery deformaty was recorded (Karki 1996).Adult Setaria male female collected from cattle buffalo (Karki et.al.2000).The menegial worm(Parelaphostrongyle tenius) also known as the deer worm its aberrant migration in sheep, goats causes damage to central nervous system with clinical signs ataxia, stiffness,muscularweakness posterior paresis,paralysis,head tilt arching back.Clinical sings generally begin in the hind limbs and progress to front limbs(David E Anderson 2oo2).There was consistent abnormality shift in nucleated cell count from predomently lymphocytes and monocytes to eosinophils over the course of infection.Parelaphostrongylus tenuis nematode normally found in the venous sinuses and subdural space of the brain of white tailed deer in eastern northern America.Moos caribou, reindeer, sheep ,goat are susceptible to infection.However they are abnormal hosts in them it causes cerebrospinalnematodiasis,a disease of nervous system,often resulting to death.(DNR-Brain worm2001-2006).Cerebro-spinal nematodiasis(CSN,or Setaria) occurs in shrilanka(Nepal,India?) in crossbred/improved goat(B.D.Perry et.al 2002).Sheep and goats are considered dead end host of deer fluke and meningeal worm once the either parasite if ingested by sheep, goat it may migrate through different part of body wrecking havoc with the animal (J.S. Rook et.al.).Sheep and goat are considered dead -end hosts for P.tenuis.The neurological sings observed in infected sheep, goat depend upon the number of larvae present in nervous tissue and specifc portion of brain or spinal cord,a mild infestation in a local area may produce slight limp,or weakness in one or more legs.A more sever infestation may cause animal to become partially or completely paralyzed(M. Kopcha et.al),(Susan Schoenian 2005) (SCWDS Briefs,1992)(Corry Jeanne Mortensen 2000)(Pusterla et.al 1997) (Kopcha M 1989)(FS Guthery et.al1979)Setaria digitata and S.marshali larvae were observed in cerebrospinal cavity of 2 paralyzed cattle in Taiwan.Affected cattle showed quadriplegia and lumbar paralysis (Kwong-Chung Tung et.al2003). (El-Azazy O.M.E.1999)Recorded Patent Setaria digitata in 5 out of 48 goats in Saudi Arabia.(Subhachalat P et.al 1999) morphologically identified worm collected from Thai cattle.( Karki et.al. 2000) Detected male ,female adult Setaria parasite from peritoneal cavity of zebu cattle and buffalo during post-mortem examination in Banke.Mukhopadhyay S;et.al 1996 implanted adult gravid female of bovine filarial worm in Mastomys coucha found microfilaraemia. Which was detected as early as 4 days post plantation. Implantation resulted in a decrease in total leuckocytes and erythrocytes and induction of eosinophilia.The microfilaria in circulation were found to be eliminated by oral administration of diethylcarbamezine citrate, indicating its usefulness as potent anti-micro filarial drugs. There was slight eosinophila in affected goat(S.P.Shrestha).Prevalence of Lumber paralysis caused by cerebrospinal nematodiasis is common in goats all over India mainly during the month of October-December with morbidity as high as31%.Prophylatic treatment with Hetrazen(diethylcarbamazine at the onset of winter is highly effective for control of lumber paralysis in goat(P.Ghalsasi et.al 2000).
Objective of study:
Haematological investigation for detection of Microfilaria in affected goat.
Haematological analysis of RBC, WBC.Hbg.PCV OF blood from affected goat.
Evaluation of Treatment response of Diethyl carbamezene.
Collection of for Haematological as well Haemoprotozoa,microfilaria identification.
Evaluation of treatment response of diethyl carbamezine.
Village Development Comity.Total Goat.Affected.Dead.
Based on the clinical manifestations, the animals were treated with Drethylecarbamezin (Hetrazen Banocide fort) provisionally diagnosed as cerebrospinalnematodiasis locally known as Kumri in out break areas.
A total blood sample slide when examined for presence of blood parasite.6 out of 10 sample revealed the presence of typical microfilaria with sheath ismost easily seen as it extends beyond the anterior and posterior ends of microfilaria.
MICROFILARIA IN BLOOD( GOAT).
The sheath is most easily seen as it extends beyond the anterior and posterior ends of microfilaria. (Veterinary Parasitology-Nematode Lab-2LungwormsandFilarids www.cvm.umn.edu/academics/course_web/current/cvm6202/Labs/lab6pdf Veterinary Clinical Parasitology Images
J. Carl Fox, Professor Filarids(Photo-1)
SETARIA digitata Male,Female Morphology(From Yeh,1959).
1; Anterior end of female,lateral view,showing opening of vulva and cephalic papillae.
2;Anterior end of male,dorsal view,showing peribuccal crown.
3;Posterior end of male,showing spicules and arrangement of papillae.
4;Posterior region of female,showing opening of anus and pair of caudal appendages.
Normal Value - Differential blood count- Meant + se
0-3%-Basophil -0.46+ 0.10
1-8%- Esionophil-8.78+ 0.38
1-5%-Monocytes- 0.93+ 0.16
40-75%- Lymphocytes- 57.63 + 1.3
10-50 %-Neutrophils32.20+ 1.25
8-18 Millions Total R.B.C.-----------------------3.3-4.6Millions/
Result and Discussion:
On the basis of clinico-epidemiological study, finding of adult Seteria spp in the cattle/ Buffalo in out break area and also microfilaria in blood from diseased goat confirm Setaria as the main cause of posterior paralysis Kumri .The finding of haematological analysis indicated a marked decrease of totat R.B.C, W.B.C.Haemoglobin, P.C.V., but a marked increase in eosinophil confirm the finding of other researcher in filarial infestation. Reaponse of Treatment was similar to earlier worker also confirmed in this entity is caused by Setereria spp.
On the basis of above finding, confirm the in specific Agro-geo. ecozone in specific season, out break of posterior paralysis(Kumri) is caused by Seteria spp. and response of Diethylcarbamazin on its treatment is recommended as soon as possible. Same treatment if applied can prevent the loss.
A.K.Upadhyay:Setariasis,Cerbrospinalnematodiasis:Preventive Veterinary Medicine IBDCO Publishing House,First Edicine 2005 pp422-424
B.D.Perry;et.al.Investing in Animal Health Research to allivate Poverty;hhtp;//www.ilri.cgiar.org/InfoServ/Webpub/Fulldocs/InvestAnim/Book1/index.htm.
Corry Jeanne Mortension,et.al;Parrlaphostrongylus(Brainworm) Infection in Deer and Elk.Western Collage of Veterinary Medicine;http://www.usask.ca/wcvm/herdmed/specialstock/elk/diseases/Ptenius.html
C. Devendra, G.B. Mcleroy: Goat and sheep production in the tropics, Reprint 1990. (Page 2-3)
David E Anderson 2002:PARASITES:Parelaphostrongylusa Tenius(Meningeal Worm) http://www.vet.ohio-state.edu/docs/ClinSci/camlid/mening.html.
DNR-Brainworm Michigan.gov.Home;Michigan DNR Wildlife Disease Laboratory.
E.J.L.Soulby: Heminth Arothopodes and protozoa of Domesticated, Animals seventh Edition 1986 pp 316-3
El-Azazy O.M.E:et.al:Patent infection with Setaria digitata in goats in Saudi Arabia:Veterinary Parasitology,Vol.82,Number2, 31March 1999,pp.161-166(6).
FS.Guthy:ET.AL;Cerebrospinal nematodiasis caused by Parelaphostrngylus tenius in Angora goats in Texas:Journal of Wildlife Diseases,15(1),1979, pp.37-42. J.S.Rook,et.al;MeningealWorms (Brain Worms) &Liver Flukes (Deer Flukes)Two Uncommon Internal Prasites
Karki Kedar and B.N. Adhikari: (Cerebrospinal nematodiasis Goats In Western Terai of Banke District- A Review) Nepalease Vet. J. 26: 98-100 (2000)
Karki K.B.Paralysis in goat; cerebrospinal nematodiasis ( in Nepali - veterinary chaumasik, Tissue 1, 2053, B.S. pp. 25-26) Kwong-Chung Tung;et.al;Cerebrospinal setariosis with Setaria marshalli and Setaria digitata infection in cattle; J.Vet.Med Sci.2003 Sep;65:977-83.
Mukhopadhyay S;et.al;Setaria digitata microfilareamia in Mastomys coucha: an animal module for chemotherapeutic and immunobiological studies;Parasitology,1996,vol.113,nO4,pp323-330,Cambridge University Press ,Cambridge,ROYAUME-UNI(1908)(Revue).
M.Kopcha:et.al:Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in a goat herd:J.Am.Vet. Med.Assoc.1989May 15;194:1439-42.
Mchel Boussingnesq;et.al:Clinical picture,epidemiology and outcome of Loa-associated serious events related to mass ivermectin treatment of oncocerciasis in Cameroon;Filaria Journal 2003,2(Suppl 1):S4DOI:10.1186/1475-2883-2-S1-S4.
M.Kopcha;et.al;P.tenuis-White-tailed Deer Parasite;MSU Extension & Ag.Experiment Station,Mechigan State University;Collage of Veterinary Medicine.
O.M. Radiostitis D.C. Blood C.C.Gay:Certebrospinal Nematodiasis Lumber Paralysis, Kumri.)Earth edition 1994 (Page No 1274-125-75)
P.Ghalsasi:et.al:Astudy on the prophylaxis of lumber paralysis caused by cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats:7th Ibternational Conference on Goats ,France,15-21 May 2000:853.
Pusterla N:et.al:Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in seven goats:Schweiz Arch Tierheilked.1997;139(6):282-7.
Statistical Information On Agriculture 1997/1998 H.M.G. Agriculture statistics Division, Nepal. 2002/2003 (Page 29)
Subhachalat P,et.al:Setaria digitata in cattle of Thailand identified by sodium dodecyle sulfate polyaceylamide gel electrophoresis,J.Vet.Med,Sci.1999April;61(4);443-5.
SCWDS Briefs,January 1992,7.4.Meningeal worms in.
Susan Schoenian;Meningeal Worm,Brain Worm-Deer Worm Paralaphostrongylustenius;http://www.sheepandgoat.com/articles/deerworm.html.
Veterinary Parasitology-Nematode Lab2(Lungworms and Filarids www.cvm.umn.edu/academics/course_web/current/cvm6202/Labs/lab6pdf
Yadav C.L. Agro climatic influence on parasitic disease of sheep and goat volume 15 issue -04 (2000) pp-1