- Fighting The Dutch Colony
This was a time where there were battles throughout the Bali region but the Dutch won out in the end:
- Buleleng War (1846)
- Jagaraga War (1848 – 1849)
- Kusamba War (1849)
- Banjar War (1868)
- Puputan Badung (1906)
- Puputan Klungkung (1908)
- Dutch Occupation Period
The Dutch intervened in all governmental affairs throughout Bali. They changed the Kings’ titles to Regent, and assigned P. L. Van Bloemen Waanders as the first Controleur in Bali
The government system in Bali was still strongly used to the traditional structure and thus they continued to use their old methods despite the Dutch’s new laws and ways. The King of Bali still remained as the ruler of Bali but he had to report to the Dutch Resident, and was assisted by a Controleur. The Kings of Southern Bali on the other hand, reported to the Assistant Resident in Denpasar. To ensure that the administrative positions will be filled by suitable candidates, the Dutch government established schools in Bali to educate the children, who were the future of the region. In particular, the Hollands Inlandsche School (HIS) catered mostly to students from royal or rich families.
- Emergence of the Movement Organization
The educated youth of Bali pioneered the establishment of the Suita Gama Tirta association, which aimed to improve the lives of the Balinese through religious teachings. The association did not last for long but soon another association Shanti Adnyana and after a name change, Bali Adnyana, was organized for the same purpose. And then shortly after in 1925, another association with a circulating magazine was formed – Suryakanta. This organization also served to accelerate the Balinese in terms of education, but they had other functions as well and one was to eliminate the traditions no longer logical or relevant to contemporary practices. There is also an organization called Satya Samudaya Baudanda Bali Lombok and their mission was to keep and collect funds for educational reasons. This group is mostly of civil servants and those from the ordinary community.
- The Japanese Occupation
The Japanese landed on Balinese grounds on February 18th and 19th, 1942. They took control of Bali when they were in Denpasar and Bali was handed over to the Japanese government soon after. During this time, the youth were educated and trained in military works to provide help to their country and dictators. The PETA was specially established for this particular purpose in 1944.
- Independence Day
On August 23rd, 1945, Bali became independent of foreign control. The villages began to be alive with this information when news of Mr I Gusti Ketut Puja arriving in Bali with the mandate as governor for the Sunda Kecil region started to spread. Soon enough, preparations were in process to structure the government in Bali.
- Puputan Margarana
On November 18th, 1946, Ngurah Rai’s troops successfully usurped the weapons of the Nica police. This marked some changes including a police commander of Nica changing sides to the corps of Rai. The troops quickly returned to Marga soon after. November 20th, 1946, Dutch soldiers surrounded the village of Marga. A few hours later, shootings began between the Nica soldiers and the men of Ngurai Rai. Many of the formers were killed in this deadly battle. The Dutch reacted violently to this. They called in their soldiers from all of Bali and brought in the bomber warplane from Makassar. But the Rai soldiers were determined to maintain their cause. They swore to themselves and each other that they will fight to their last. They were true to their word, making their “Puputan” as all 96 of them fell and Ngurah Rai himself ended his life. They are all national heroes. They fought bravely despite their small number and the casualty rate on the Dutch side was high with around 400 Dutch soldiers dead. A special monument, “Tugu Pahlawan Taman Pujaan Bangsa”, was erected in memory of these brave men.
- Denpasar Conference
The Denpasar conference was held from December 18th to December 24th, 1946, at the lounge of the Bali hotel. The meeting was targeted at the arrangement of Eastern Indonesian Republic (NIT) with Makassar, the capital city. With this new organization, the government structure was again arranged as it was in the days of past kingdoms where the King was assisted by Patih, Punggawa, Perbekel, and the Kelian at the lowest position of government. Back then there was also a governmental board higher in authority than the King called the Board of Kings.