Genetic Heart Disease Link Identified

By: Chris Marshall

Scientists have identified a genetic flaw which increases the risk of heart disease and heart attacks. Researchers from the US and Canada found that that up to one in four white people carries the section of DNA which increases the risk of heart disease by around 40%. Whilst in Iceland researchers found the same genetic variant was linked to a fifth of heart attacks.

Both teams of researchers scanned the genomes of patients who had coronary heart disease or who had suffered a heart attack to see if there were any differences between them and healthy people. The US/Canadian scientists found a section of DNA, called an allele, n a specific chromosome which was associated with heart disease. They studied 23,000 people and found that those with one copy of this allele had a moderately increased risk of heart disease, whilst those with two copies, which accounts for about 20-25 % of white people, have a 30 to 40% higher risk of heart disease than individuals who carry no copies.

Professor Ruth McPherson, of the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, who worked on the study, said: "The effect is less than that of smoking or having a high cholesterol level. Nonetheless, screening healthy people for this genetic marker could provide information on future risk of heart disease and help identify those individuals who would benefit most from early applications of strategies to reduce heart disease risk."

The US/Canadian researchers now plan to check if the findings also apply to people from black and Asian ethnic minorities too.

Meanwhile in Iceland, the study of 17,000 people looked at the same strand of DNA. They also found that more than 20% of people had two copies of the faulty allele which led to a 60% increased risk of heart attack, compared with those who with no copies. Dr Kari Stefansson, who led the research for the Decode genetics company, said if those at risk of heart attacks were identified, then they could be given medications such as statins, or cardiac procedures - as well as healthy living advice - to reduce their risk.

Despite the research by both sets of scientists it still remains unclear why this particular area of the genome is linked to heart disease, although researchers believe it may be associated with hardening and narrowing of the arteries.

Professor Peter Weissberg, medical director of the British Heart Foundation, said: "Trying to find genes that put some families at an increased risk of heart attacks is like trying to find a collection of needles scattered amongst a field full of hay-stacks. The significance of these two studies is that two independent research teams have homed in on the same hay-stack. This makes it very likely that they are close to identifying a needle - an important gene in that region. This will take a lot more research and - once found - the gene will be only one of several that are important. This research represents an important step along a very long journey, but a step in the right direction."

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