Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Facts, Treatment, Prevention

By: Juliet Cohen

Acute promyelocytic leukemia, a malignancy of the ivory marrow in which there is an inadequacy of old blood cells in the myeloid cable of cells and a surplus of immature cells called promyelocytes. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a subtype of intense myelogenous leukemia, a cancer of the blood and ivory marrow. The signs and symptoms particular to APL outcome from a shortfall of natural blood cells payable to crowding out of natural blood cell-producing ivory marrow by the leukemia cells. In Acute promyelocytic leukemia, there is an irregular accretion of immature granulocytes called promyelocytes. The disease is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving the retinoic acidic receptor alpha gene and is unusual from new forms of AML in its responsiveness to all trans retinoic acidic therapy.

Acute promyelocytic leukemia is normally associated with a shortfall of natural light-colored blood cells (a circumstance called leukopenia) and, in specific, overly few old granulocytes. This results in a high danger of infections. The peak incidence of APL is in inexperienced adults. APL is considered a character of AML and is classified as the M3 variation of AML in the internationally accepted french american british classification. Signs and symptoms of intense promyelocytic leukemia are related to new forms of intense promyelocytic leukemia. Symptoms include weight departure or departure of appetite, shortness of breather with exertion, fever, tiredness, anemia, simple bruising or bleeding, petechiae, ivory pain and multilateral pain and relentless or regular infections.

Acute promyelocytic leukemia can be distinguished from new types of AML based on morphologic testing of an ivory marrow biopsy or aspirate. Definitive diagnosis requires examination for the RARÃ? fusion gene. The handling of APL differs from that for all new forms of AML. Most intense promyelocytic leukemia patients are now treated with all-trans retinoic acid. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a kind of differentiation therapy. It can cause a comprehensive absolution in most patients with APL by causing the APL-blasts to grow. ATRA is typically combined with anthracycline based chemotherapy resulting in a clinical absolution in roughly 90% of patients. ATRA therapy is associated with the unusual position consequence of retinoic acidic syndrome. This is associated with the growth of dyspnea, fever, weight increase, incidental edema and is treated with dexamethasone.

The prospect for acute promyelocytic leukemia depends on a number of factors including the white blood cell count at the time of diagnosis, etc. Treatment options for patients with relapsed disease include arsenic trioxide and allogeneic stem cell transplant. Bone marrow transplantation may be successful in achieving a cure, but it is an option for only a fraction of the younger relapsed patients. Stem cell transplant is a method of giving chemotherapy and replacing blood-forming cells that are abnormal or destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the patient or a donor and are frozen and stored. Arsenic trioxide is the standard of care for APL patients whose disease returns after or does not respond to initial treatment.

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