Granuloma Annulare - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

By: Juliet Cohen

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes, or black-legged, tick, also known as a deer tick. Borrelia is a gram negative bacterium. Lyme disease in Europe is more often caused by Borrelia afzelii or Borrelia garinii. areas of New York, where Lyme disease is common, over half of the ticks are infected. Lyme disease has been reported most often in the Northeastern United States, but has been reported in all 50 states as well as China, Europe, Japan, Australia and the parts of the former Soviet UnionIt is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the predominant cause of Lyme disease in the U.S. Lyme has at least 37 known species, 12 of which are Lyme related, and an unknown amount genomic strains. Hard-bodied (Ixodes) ticks are the primary Lyme disease vectors. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus (known commonly as the sheep tick, castor bean tick, or European castor bean tick) is the transmitter.It is important to note that the majority of infections are caused by ticks in the nymph stage, as adult ticks do not become infected through feeding. Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick or deer tick) has been identified as the key to the disease's spread on the east coast, while on the west coast the primary vector is Ixodes pacificus.

Causes of Lyme Disease

1. Bacterium ( Borrelia burgdorferi ).

Symptoms of of Lyme Disease

1.Fever

2.Headache

3.Lethargy

4.Muscle pains

5.Stiff neck

6.Joint inflammation

Treatment of Lyme Disease

1.Oral antibiotics Doxycycline - bacteriostatic properties stops synthesis of bacteria replication.

2.Amoxicillin - bactericidal properties kill bacterium, Beta-lactam properties inhibit the synthesis of bacterial cell walls.

3.Ceftriaxone - (intravenous therapy) bactericidal properties kill bacterium. Has central nervous system penetration.

4.Anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen, are sometimes prescribed to relieve joint stiffness.

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