Nanobiotechnology,a Quantum Scientific Approach in 21st Century

By: RAVINDRAKUMAR DHANDE

Nanobiotechnology,a quantum scientific approach in 21st century

Imagination is the key in human life and is the main force behind every development of human lifestyle. Considering the impact of science and technology on the human race, it is natural to think 'Nothing is Impossible'.

Biotechnology is the application of biological research techniques to develop immense products for mankind. Whereas, nanobiotechnology is the application of nano-scaled tools to biological systems and the other is the use of biological systems as templates in the development of novel nano-scaled products. Simply a nano-biotechnology is the complex of nanotechnology and biotechnology. Each of these technologies has a tremendous impact by itself and therefore when they complement each other it results in efficacious fourth dimensional solutions.

Nanotechnology used in biotechnology usually called nanobiotechnology is definitely a life-saving innovation that has come as a boon to mankind. It involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the level of molecules and atoms for the development of Nanomedicine, Nanosensors, Nanofluidics and Nanofabrics. It is a valuable contribution of the profound research by scientists and engineers to create new systems with novel functionalities.

Nanomedicine is one of an offshoot of nanotechnology, refers to highly specific medical intervention at the molecular level for curing disease or repairing damaged tissues, such as bone, muscle, or nerve. The existing means of intake of drugs orally or through injections are becoming moderately effective but can be extremely painful due to the non-availability of accurate diagnosis. The concept of nanomedicine involves the newer methods to deliver drugs at the right place, time, and amounts in the body. Scientists and engineers have developed new systems where the human-body parameters are monitored using a techno-monitor (semiconductor chip) that is placed inside a human body. These chips are the "nano" machines which are compatible with living tissues and can be safely operated inside the body.

For example: When a patient is being treated for diabetes, the semiconductor chip monitors the blood-sugar levels and passes on the information to the device outside of the body. The external device, in turn, instructs the semiconductor chip that acts as the drug delivery system, to release the right amounts of insulin into the blood, thus causing less or no side effects to the patient.

The approach of nanomedicine is versatile and will completely revolutionize the diverse branches of medicine in near future. It involves the application of nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy, drug delivery for prostate cancer and nanowire devices for virus detection and cancer screening too. Thus, nanomedicine is simply the preservation and improvement of human health using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body.

Nanofabrication is the design and manufacture of devices with dimensions measured in nanometers. One nanometer is 10-9 meter, or a millionth of a millimeter. It is of high interest to computer engineers as it opens the door to super-high-density microprocessors and memory chips. It has been suggested that each data bit could be stored in a single atom. Carrying this information further, a single atom might even be able to represent a byte or word of data.

Nano sensors can be prepared by engineering the biomolecules, to recognize a wide variety of targets, including small molecules and specific proteins. Researchers have created DNA-based sensors for nano-tongues and nano- noses.

Nanotechnology shares a wide range of applications right from high-density data for detecting DNA sequence to improve taste and variety of fruits and vegetables nanofluidics. On the commercial front, nanotechnology has enhanced every field in science, engineering, and technology, thus giving high efficiency and profitability of human existence.

This is all being addressed through nano-biotechnology.

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