Dna Testing - Rediscovering Adam Based on Y-chromosome

By: J.J. Yong

Y chromosome is the only chromosome that you find in all males. It has distinctive shape and function as it involves in sex-determination during embryo development (A human male contains one X chromosome and one Y chromosome).

Other than that, Y chromosome contains paternal DNA which is used in determining father's ancestry (patrilineality) as it is passed from father to son. It is because most of the Y chromosome passes almost unchanged from generation to generation.

In search of our parent's ancestry enable us to understand our roots and our anthropological history.

Basically, random mutation causes slight changes in Y chromosomes that enable us to elucidate total generations of the two Y chromosomes that are derived from a common ancestor also known as Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA).

Based on this concept, it is possible to clarify the distinct relationship between two males to make sure they are really related with each other. In cutting-edge of DNA testing, several genetic markers are used to estimate how closely males are related to each other which can be done in a very short time and as well as to trace the paternal line.

Five millions years ago, our Y-chromosome had been traveling around the world since humans and our primate cousins were evolutionary separated. Y chromosome Adam was discovered from comparison test on men around the world which able to construct a family tree for mankind that indicates the most recent common male ancestor lived about 60,000 years ago in Africa.

The importance of the date of our common Y chromosome ancestor is that it effectively gives us an upper limit when our species began to leave Africa between 60,000 and 50,000 years ago. This is known as "Out of Africa" theory.

Though the name "Adam" is just a metaphor, consistent results of tracking the most recent common male ancestor reflect humanity's origin and spread around the world are within biblical range of about 10,000 to 60,000 years ago.

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