Kutch Ancient Megalithic Culture : Pre Harappan & Harappan

By: Dr. Bhudia

Dear Friends of Science and Archaeology,

Megalithic culture of ancient Kutch.

Very less has been investigated about ancient megalithic culture of Kutch during the pre Harappan and Harappan times. Few known places have been investigated some of them are Goniasar , Juni Rayan, Zura Kotadi, Guntali Desalpar, Meghpar Khander vari wadi, Todio timbo, Sarli Tombo, Juna Kotada near Roha and Dholavira. But very little work has been done on the subject and the places. One of such an outstanding place is Jangania near NALIYA in Abadasa, where graves are specifically shaped according to the shape of body.

Generally it is a belief that there are very few such places but it has wide distributed in ancient time in Kutch, and so also need to put more interest in the subject and also in investigations of such cultures.

During our last geo-archaeological expedition in 2007 we visited few megalithic structures in kutch. Namely famous Dholavira and three new places namely Todio (Timbo), Timbo SARLI and Old Kotada near Roha. If photo below is not seen clearly an attachment picture "Ancient Megalithic Structures.jpg" is added to this email. As we see in composed photograph below DHOLAVIRA has similar circular structures (Bottom Rt Corner). we also discovered similar Megalithic structures underground in megalithic places namely Todio (Timbo) (Bottom Lt Corner), Timbo SARLI (Upper Lt Corner). and Old Kotada near Roha (Upper Rt Corner).

So not only few known places do have such hidden culture but is widely distributed all over kutch during ancient time. we have some explanation of our recorded expedition and also a time table below for the ancient Megalithic structures. so we can compare the timings of those structures to relate with the ancient Civilisations in the Kutch during pre Harappan and Harappan times.

Megalithic Civilisation found in ZURA (KOTADI) of KUTCH - Megalithic SAMADHIs (Graves) of Zura Kotadi and potteries and bones

Zura (Jhura) is situated North West of BHUJ (23:24N - 69:39E) is known place for its Geology and History as it says Zura - (Fall due to seismic activity at Jhura) of the Kutch.

But its Geology is also associated with its archaeology and civilisation in that area. Though not much known of the place but local people are aware of the story of those places but far away from the knowledge of Archaeological importance as the area remained unexplored.

2km South and SE region of the Village is the Place called "KOTADI" as many civilisation names. Area has big elevated area TIMBO having stone wall around but hidden underneath. On exploration many of the Pottery found in the area including toys parts and pottery of two different varieties - Red as usual as also black - as in the area of RAMVAV and LAKHAPAR region civilisation in VAGAD - RAPAR area.

Rivers in this region all flows from South West to North EAST- from slops of the Jhuran Mountain slopes towards the Banni planes where there used to be a lake of the water of the rivers Sarasvati and sindhu waters in the Rann of KUTCH.

About 1 Km East of that KOTADI area is the place of the Mystery graves. I would say rather SAMADHIs as I have explained it before as they are the SAMADHIs is a sitting posture and are kept open on the east side of those as are kept in Samadhi rules as explained by Mahant Shree Kishordasji.

Many of such Samadhi are about some distance from the civilisation area as in the Case of GADHVARI VADI civilisation (Meghpar)- one of samadhi was in KHANDERVARI VADI.

Specimens collected from the region confirms those civilisation and Megalithic Samadhis in the region says those to be 2000 BC.

Similar type of Mystery graves of Mystery Shapes (shapes are given to the body shapes) are also in JANGADIA - ABADASA NALIYA -LAKHPAT way. those are also Megalithic times graves.

I would prefer to say those Megalithic SAMADHIs as that can not be defined as an ordinary graves. I also took an expert opinions from Mahant shree Kishordasji of kabir Mandir BHUJ as he is well known personality of the subjects regarding SAMADHIs. We went together there to identify those, and local observation showed that those places has become an open spaces now as a result of environment and weather. and shows skull bones opened from the top side and not the Limb bones. so Those are defined as Sitting SAMADHIs. and east side of those SAMADHIs kept open as seen shadows towards east in the Evening pictures.

prominent for the region's prehistoric population. Circular graves dating to c. 3000 BC are dotted . stone piled up a round -shaped chamber the site of the first archaeological excavation when several circular, collective tombs like those were excavated. The excavation of a settlement confirmed the importance of the locale and for this reason the period c. 2500-2000 BC.

They are typical of burial mounds of about 2000 BC where the cremated remains of the community's elders would have been buried. "Carbon dating should confirm that the burial mound dates to about 2000BC," This means the Bronze Age graveyard dates back . They have already found a piece of pottery containing the remains of burnt shells. "It is possible that the enclosure could date as far back as 3000 BC," "But we need to find more pottery that has decoration so we can provide a more accurate date to the site."

Megalithic tombs research has a long history, inextricably linked with the development of archaeology itself. In the beginning (2400 b.c.-1200 A.D.) interest in for such interest consisted primarily of superstitious awe and religious inspiration. Beyond this, the curiosity of unknown prehistoric individuals can only be imagined.

However, many terms describing megalithic architecture were first recorded. During the Culture History and subsequent periods the Some felt that the chronology only needed minor adjustments and that new tomb excavations and large catalogs would explain the evolution of the tombs. Surprisingly the advent of C14 dating in the fifties, which revolutionized archaeology in many parts of the world, had little effect on dating tombs, C14 dates began to hint at the real antiquity of the tombs, but ceramic analysis continued to play the major role.

the relative chronology. Difficulties in various regional ceramic typologies were isolated and efforts have been made to overcome incongruencies between the typological method used for ceramics, problems in C14 dating, and theories on megalithic tomb evolution. and related pottery contributed. The origin of megalithic tombs , graves has been a matter of debate for centuries. The Eastern Tomb Origin Theory is currently not persuasive. The western origin is tainted by the diffusionists' mind-set. It is contradicted by radiocarbon dates and the evolutionary trajectory of French tombs. The Autochthonous Theory is supported by a logical, chronological evolution of tomb types and their spatial distribution

The origin of megalithic tombs is an autochthonous development. This network was held together by a common ideology expressed through the building of monumental burial architecture which, Megalithic tomb construction expanded at different rates , The local and regional tomb types were derived from local traditions, local religious interpretations and customs tied to an interregional ideology.


3600-2990/2860 B.C./2860-2400/2300 b.c. 3550/3500-3100 B.C.

3600-3290 B.C./2860-2610 b.c. [3550/3500-3100 B.C.

3600-3530 B.C./2860-2800 b.c. [3550/3500-3400 B.C.] Primeval-dolmen (urdolmen, normally parallel to long-mound)

3550-3460 B.C./2850-2750 b.c. Transitional dolmen (parallel/perpendicular to long-mound)

3550 B.C./2815 b.c. Top-entrance urdolmen 3530 B.C./2800 b.c. Half-height front-entrance urdolmen and square-dolmen 3500 B.C./2780 b.c. Extended-dolmen with axial capstone

3480-3290 B.C./2760-2610 b.c. [3400-3100 B.C.] Multiple side-stone dolmen (perpendicular to long-mound)

3480 B.C./2760 b.c. Rectilinear and polygonal extended-dolmen 3450 B.C./2740 b.c. Rectilinear and polygonal grand-dolmen

3400-3100/2970 B.C./2700-2490/2400 b.c. [3250-3100 B.C.] Passage-graves

3400-3290 B.C./2700-2610 b.c. Transitional chambers with passage

3400 B.C./2700 b.c. Large polygonal- and rectilinear-dolmen/protopassage-graves with angled/corner entrance and passage

3360-3100/2970 B.C./2650-2490/2400 b.c. [3250-3100 B.C.] Passage-graves*

3360 B.C./2650 b.c. Primeval passage-graves 3290 B.C./2610 b.c. Extended passage-graves 3240 B.C./2570 b.c. Grand passage-graves

3320-3100/2970 B.C./2630-2490/2400 b.c. [3250-3100 B.C.] Complex Chambers

3320 B.C./2630 b.c. Side-chamber passage-graves 3300 B.C./2620 b.c. End-chamber passage-graves 3290 B.C./2610 b.c. Double passage-graves 3260 B.C./2580 b.c. Triple passage-graves 3240 B.C./2570 b.c. Dual-passage chambers 3210 B.C./2560 b.c. Single chamber double passage-graves

3400-2860 B.C./2700-2300 b.c. Gallery-graves

3400 B.C./2700 b.c. Primeval gallery-graves with front- or side entrance 3290 B.C./2610 b.c. Extended gallery-graves with front- or side entrance 3240 B.C./2570 b.c. Grand gallery-graves with front- or side-entrance

From:- YOURS Dr.BHUDIA-Science Group Of INDIA.


President:'Kutch Science Foundation'.

Founder :'Kutch Amateurs Astronomers Club - Bhuj - Kutch'.

Life Member:'kutch Itihaas Parishad'.

kutchscience@yahoo.co.in, kutchscience@hotmail.com,








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