Trends in Mobile Communications

By: Ian Ball

Communication is one of the important areas of Electronics and has always been a focus point for exchanging information among parties at locations physically apart. There are different modes of communication like written messages ,speaking to the other party, giving Fax etc.
Multimedia applications can be used for this purpose. Multimedia is an integrated interactive storage and retrieval processing system involving audio, video, computer graphics, animation etc. The three components of communication are
1.Contents to be communicated
2.Channel or media through which communication takes place
3.Communication protocols.

MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS:

Since the time of Morconi Radio Communication has been used extensively. Since then the society has been looking for acquiring mobility in communication. Initially the mobile communication was limited between one pair of users on single channel pair. The range of mobility was defined by the transmitter power, type of antenna used and the frequency of operation. With the increase in the number of users, accommodating them within the limited available frequency spectrum became a major problem. To resolve this the concept of cellular communication was evolved. The cellular communication uses a basic unit called cell. Each cell consists of small hexagonal area with a base station located at the centre of the cell., which communicates with the user. To accommodate multiple users , Time Division multiple Access(TDMA), Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA) , Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and their hybrids were proposed and had been in use.

MULTIPLE ACESS SCHEMES:

Multiple access to a transmission medium is related to the channel properties and modulation applied. The division of the frequency spectrum assigned to the system in a certain number of sub bands used by different users is called FDMA. The users share the same spectrum but dividing time among themselves is known as TDMA. Users generate signals that occupy the whole system band width and time. However due to the application of specific signal sequence uniquely characterizing each user, the receiver is able to extract the signal of the selected user from sum of signals emitted by different users. This approach is known as CDMA .

IMPACT OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION ON QUALITY OF LIFE:

Communication is an integral part of life. Telephones have replaced telegrams and letters. The 'Mobile' has completely revolutionized the communication. It has opened up innovative applications that are limited to one's imagination. A person has connectivity to any one any where in the world provided destination party is connected / reachable through some tele-communication net work Some of the areas where quality of life is

Expected to improve are1) A research professional can survey, retrieve desired material, interact with the researcher fraternity and submit the findings, review others etc and so on.2) A student can request information and support from website resources , reply the question paper on-line or send reply through electronic mail and /or can have real time updates to the content.3) Doctors / specialties / departments are globally connected to patients / distant hospitals at remote places / diagnostic centers and so on. Doctors can get the desired reports, prescribe treatments and / or discuss with other specialists and get treated at distant hospital etc.4) Intelligent agencies can call red alerts for possible threats / attacks and maintain law and order in a better way.5) Air line staff can gather information about ticketing , flight scheduling and luggage etc.6) Electronic bills enable consumer to receive and pay their bills using a phone by wiring application protocol(WAP) 7) Sales professionals can stay connected with customers about products and services placed orders etc 8) A real estate agent can have access to a multiple listing data base to deal with different needs of customers.9) A remote stock broker can transact at Bombay stock exchange as quickly as a broker inside the exchange . 10) A house wife can shop , pay bills , interact with children in schools/colleges, request / instruct her husband , participate in kitty parties , learn preparation of new dishes and so on .11) A navigator can request the security agencies if lost of track.

Mobile communication has become backbone of the society. All the mobile system technologies have definitely improve the quality of life. It has affected not only the higher class people but a common man has also got benefited. The mobile communication has provided global connectivity to the people at a lower cost due to advances in the technology and also because of the growing competition among the service providers. Mobile technology is going to be one of the major thrust technologies for decades to come.

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