Credit Card Factoring

By: Max Bellamy

Credit policy refers to the combination of decisions pertaining to variables such as credit standards, credit terms and collection. Credit standards constitute the various criteria on the basis of which the customers, to whom credit is to be granted, are evaluated by the firm. Credit terms contain the terms and conditions of extending the credit facility. They include, duration of credit, terms of payment, delivery schedule, discounts etc. Collection efforts comprise the steps taken by the firm in order to collect the book debts from the customers.

There are different types of credit policies being followed by factoring companies. A firm may either follow a tight credit policy or a liberal credit policy. A firm is said to be following a tight credit policy where it sells on credit on a highly selective basis only to those customers with proven credit-worthiness and are financially strong. A firm following a liberal credit policy sells on credit to customers on liberal terms and standards. Credit is granted even for longer periods to those customers whose credit-worthiness and financial soundness are well known.

A tight credit policy means rejection or refusal of certain types of accounts whose credit-worthiness is doubtful. This results in loss of sales and consequently loss of revenues. When the firm loosens its credit policy, two types of administration costs are incurred viz., the cost of credit investigation and supervision and the collection costs. An immediate consequence of liberal credit policy is the accumulation of bad debts, where the firm is unable to collect the debts. This happens because the firm tends to sell even to such customers with relatively less credit standing. In modern days, the credit policy is used as an effective marketing tool capable of boosting the sales volume of the firm. This may be used to maintain the market share, especially in a declining market. Credit policy helps to retain old customers and create new customers by luring them away from competitors.

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