Melasma and Facial Melanosis

By: Narvivar Athi

Melasma and facial melanosis is a skin problem. The hyperpigmentation is commonly brown to black area on the face especially forehead and cheek cause undesirable looking and losing the self confident.

What's cause melasma and facial melanosis?
Melasma and facial melanosis are the result of abnormal melanocyte and excess melatonin under the skin. Usually occur in female more than male and the age over 30 years old. The stimulating factors are pregnancy, taking contraceptive pills, stress, photo damage, genetic and tumor in the ovary. Other factor is chemical e.g. coal tar oil, perfume and some cosmetic.

How to treatment the melasma and facial melanosis?
1. Protection the face from the photo by using sun protection. The way to select sun protection is looking for the SPF, should me more than factor 8. PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid), should be not less than 5%. And Micronized titanium dioxide, which is an active ingredient that works as UV-A and UV-B reflector.
2. Anti-melasma cream. The common process of the anti melasma cream is reducing melatonin by interrupting tyrosinase activity. The active ingredients that usually used for anti-melasma are licorice acid, hydroquinone, retinoic acid, corticosteroid, kojic acid, azlaic acid, tranexamic acid and ascorbic acid.

The precaution for use the anti-melasma cream
1. The anti-melasma creams should be use under medication supervisors. Some products have many contraindications and side effects such as hydroquinone, corticosteroid and retinoic acid, should be consult the pharmacist before using.
2. The presence of skin irritation after use the products, should prohibit initiation.
3. Most anti-melasma creams may exposure to sunlight or sun lamps, the customers/patients should know the side effect before using and avoid that factor.
4. The local reaction of some products are reported during therapy include dry and peeling face. The customers/patients have to use moisturizing creams together.
5. The customers/patients should apply the bleaching cream only at the melasma and avoid apply around the eyes.
6. The customers/patients have to do the skin test before use anti-melasma products. Apply the cream inside of the arms 24 hours and investigate the irritation.

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