Motivation in the Work Place

By: Tony

MOTIVATION:
The word motivation is derived from the word motive which means any idea or emotions that prompts a person into action.
Motivation can also be defined as the urge or drive to take action to satisfy wants. The motivators are the actions or implements that will actually motivate employees to perform in a desired way.
In the employment context the major concentration for management is the problem of getting the employees to work in such a way that the organization achieves its goals.

Importance of Motivation
-It improves efficiency with which the job is done.
-It leads to higher productivity and better quality work
-It creates confidence in employees
-It leads to lower supervisory costs
-It reduces labour turnover, absenteeism, complaints and grievances from the employees.

Motivation Theories:
There are various ways of looking at motivation. The early motivation theories can be grouped under 3 headings

1.Satisfaction Themes (Herzberg)

These theories are based on the assumption that a satisfied worker will work harder. Satisfaction may reduce labor turnover and absenteeism but will not necessarily increase individual productivity.

2.Incentive Theories:

These theories are based on the assumption that individuals will work harder in order to obtain a desired reward. This is a positive reinforcement although most studies are concentrated on money as a motivator.
Incentive theories can work if the individual perceives the increased reward to be worth the extra effort.
The performance can be measured and clearly attributed to that individual.
The individual wants that kind of reward.
The increased performance will not become the new minimum standard.

3.Intrinsic Theory

These theories are based on the belief that higher order needs are one more prevalent in modern man than he is given credit for. People will work hard in response to factor the work itself e.g. participation, responsibility and so on i.e. effective performance is its own reward.

The satisfaction Theory (Herzberg): (2-factor Theory):

Herzberg identified elements which cause job dissatisfaction and classified them as hygiene factors. Those which can cause job satisfaction he classified them as motivator factors.
He called them hygiene factors because they are essentially preventive i.e. they prevent or minimize dissatisfaction, but do not give satisfaction.
The hygiene factors are:

-Company policy and administration
-Salary
-Quality of supervision
-Interpersonal relations
-Working conditions
-Job security

The hygiene factors relate to conditions of work rather than to the work itself. They answer the question why work here?
The motivator factors actually create job satisfaction and are effective in motivating an individual to superior performance and effort. They answer the question why work harder?
These factors are:

-Status
-Advancement
-Gaining recognition
-Being given responsibility
-Challenging work
-Achievement
-Growth in the job

Expectancy Theory (V.H. VROOM):
This states that an individual's behavior is affected by:
1.What the person wants to happen.

2.That person's estimate of the probabilities of various events occurring including the desired outcome.

3.The strength of the persons belief that a certain outcome will satisfy his needs.
In other words the theory states that the strength of an individual's motivation to do something will depend on the extent to which he expects the results of his efforts to contribute towards his personal needs, either to reward him or punish him.

The expectancy theory states that people will decide how much they are going to put into their work according to:
The value that they place on the outcome, whether positive value of reward or the negative value of punishment. This is called valence.

The strength of their expectation that behaving in a certain way will infact bring out the desired outcome. This is called expectancy.

Human Resources
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