How a Mobile Phone Works

by : Ian Ball



Mobiles are electronic devices that are used for shorter and longer distance communication. These are portable and can be handled easily. Mobiles phones are called as two-way radios. When we talk in mobiles, the transmitter at the sender side takes up the voice data and converts it in to radio frequency waves. These waves are transmitted through air and it will reach a base station that is closer and free. The particular base station will now transfer the call through the mobile telephone network unless it reaches the callee the caller is trying for.

Now, when the callee receives the call, the information is passed through the mobile telephone network and will reach the base station that is closer to the caller's phone. The radio waves that the base station has sent to the caller's phone will be converted as voice data by the receiver in the caller's phone.

Both the telephone network and mobile phone network increases its base station now and then in order to provide a wider coverage area to increase the number of subscribers it can handle as the number keeps on increasing every minute. The growing circle of people using mobile phone users, demands for more base stations to increase the capacity and channels and high frequency of operation.

Categories of Base stations:

The frequency of operation can be 9000 MHz or 18000 MHz or 21000 MHz, based on the equipment and the operator. .Base stations are classified in to three categories of cells. A radio base station is needed to support each cell.

Macrocells - These are base stations that cover up to a range of 22 miles. This is the main heart of the mobile network. Though the range can be as wide to support 22 miles, the tall buildings of the city, trees reduce the signal strength.

Microcells - These cells are designed to increase the capacity of the main network. Like in cities of congested network say an airport, railway station, hospitals, malls and shopping centre. The range of coverage is just a few hundred meters which is less than the macrocell's range.

Picrocells - These cells are designed to provide a dedicated coverage to a particular building or still smaller area say, a floor in the building.

Each base station can handle only a limited number of calls and if this is crossed the additional base stations have to be designed to handle the capacity increase.

An important concept to in handling calls in Handoff condition. This is a process that occur when a person is moving from one cell to another and the beauty of this lies when call is transferred without any interruption

Thus, it is simple and clear as how a mobile and mobile station works and handles the calls.

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