Visulization of Sss Materials

by : meera

Visualization of SSS Materials.

SSS Materials: [Triple S Materials]
Materials possessing grain size on the order of a billionth of a meter. Since nano materials posses unique, beneficial, chemical physical and mechanical properties they can be used for wider variety of applications. We can see the presence of nano materials everywhere and how it is superior to other materials which are being used now days and earlier. Nano materials can be called as SSS materials as they are SMALL, STRONG and SMART.

Amazing Resistance power:
Tungsten Carbide , Tantalum Carbide and Titanium carbide are much harder , much more wear resistant, erosion resistant and last longer than their conventional counter parts. Miniaturization of micro electronic circuits ,the industry needs microdrills( drill bits with diameter less than the thickness of average human hair or 100?m) with enhanced edge retention & far better wear resistance. Since nano crystalline carbides are much stronger, harder , and wear resistant they are currently being used in these microdrills.
High Energy Density batteries:
The life of conventional and rechargeable batteries is low. Nano crystalline materials synthesized by Sol-gel techniques are the ones for separator plates in batteries because of their foam-like (aerogel) structure, which can hold considerably more energy than conventional ones. Nano crystalline nickel and metal hydrides are envisioned to require far less frequent recharging and to last much longer because of their large grain boundary (surface) area and enhanced physical , chemical , and mechanical properties.
Pollution Eraser:
Due to their enhanced chemical activity, nano materials can be used as catalysts to react with such noxious and toxic gases as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide in automobile catalytic converters and power generation equipment to prevent environmental pollution arising from burning gasoline and coal.
Mega Power Magnets:
The strength of a magnet is measured in terms of coercivity and saturation magnetization values. These values increase with a decrease in the grain size and an increase in the specific surface area of the grains. The magnets made of nano crystalline yittrium-Samarium-cobalt grains posses very unusual magnetic properties due to their extremely large surface area. Other applications:
Automobile alternators, land-based power generators, motors for ships, ultra-sensitive analytical instruments and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medical diagnostics.

High Sensitivity Sensors:
Sensors employ their sensitivity to the changes in various parameters they are designed to measure. The measured parameters include electrical resistivity chemical activity, magnetic permeability, thermal conductivity and capacitance. All these depend greatly on the microstructure of the materials employed in the sensors. The sensors made nano crystalline materials are extremely sensitive to the change in their environment. Applications for sensors made out of nano crystalline materials are smoke detectors, ice detectors on air craft wings, automobile engine performance sensor etc.
Enhancing Efficiency of Automobiles:
Currently automobile engines waste considerable amounts of gasoline thereby contribute to environmental pollution by not completely combusting the gas. A conventional spark plug is not designed to burn the gasoline completely and efficiently. Since nano materials are stronger, harder and much more wear -resistant and corrosion resistant they are presently being envisioned to be used as spark plugs.
These electrodes render the spark plugs longer-lasting and combust fuel far more efficiently and completely. Automobiles waste significant amounts of energy by losing the thermal energy generated by the engine. This is especially true in the case of diesel engines. Hence the engine cylinders (liners) are currently being envisioned to be coated with nano crystalline ceramics, such as Zirconia and alumina so that they retain heat much more efficiently and result in complete and efficient combustion of the fuel.

Improvising the performance of Aerospace Components:
Due to the risks involved in flying aircraft manufacturers strive to make the aerospace components stronger, tougher and last longer. One of the key properties required of the aircraft components is the fatigue strength which decreases with the component's age. By making the components out of stronger materials the life of aircraft is greatly increased. SSS materials i.e nano materials provide such a significant reduction in the grain size over conventional materials that the fatigue life is increased by an average of 200-300%. Further more components made of nano materials are stronger and can operate at higher temperatures, aircrafts can fly faster and more efficiently. So nano materials are the best substitute for spacecraft applications.

Other side of ceramic materials:
Ceramics are very hard, brittle, and hard to machine. These characteristics of ceramics have discouraged the potential users from exploiting their beneficial properties. However these ceramics must posses nano crystalline grains to be superplastic. i.e it can be deformed to great great lengths (up to 300% of its original length).Nano crystalline ceramics, such as silicon nitride, and silicon carbide have been used in such automotive applications as high strength springs , ball bearings and valve lifters because they posses good formability and mach inability combined with excellent physical, chemical and mechanical properties. They can also be used as components in high-temperature furnaces.
Computer chips of future generation:
The micro electronics industry has been emphasizing miniaturization, where by the circuits, such as transistors, resistors, and capacitors are reduced in size .Though microprocessors run faster there are several technical impediments to these advancements including lack of the ultra fine precursors to manufacture these components, dissipation of heat energy due to faster speed short mean time failures etc. Nano materials break these barriers down by providing the manufacturers with Nano crystalline starting materials ultra high purity materials, materials with better thermal conductivity, longer lasting durable inter connections.(connections between various components in microprocessors).
Large Electronic Display Devices:
An electronic device consists of material which an optical absorption band can be introduced or an existing band can be altered by the passage of current through the materials, or by the application of an field. Nano crystalline materials such as tungsten oxide gel are used in very large electro chromic display devices. The resolution, brightness and contrast of these devices greatly depend on the tungstic acid gel's grain size .Hence nano materials are being explored for this purpose.
The resolution of the television or a monitor depends greatly on the size of the pixel. These pixels are essentially made of materials called "phosphors" which glow when struck by a stream of electrons inside the cathode ray tube (CRT).The resolution improves with the reduction in the of the pixel or the phosphors. Nano crystalline Zinc selenide, Zinc sulfide, cadmium sulfide and lead telluride synthesized by the sol-gel technique are improving the resolution of the monitors. The use of nano phosphors is envisioned to reduce the cost of displays so as to render high definition televisions and personal computers

Flat-panel displays represent a huge market in the lap-top computers industry. The flat-panel displays constructed out of nano materials possess much higher brightness and contrast than the conventional ones owing to their enhanced electrical and magnetic properties.

Longer Lasting Satellites:
Satellites are being used for both defense and civilian purposes. These satellites utilize thruster rockets to remain in or change their orbits due to a variety of factors including the influence of gravitational forces exerted by the earth .Hence these satellites to a large extent is determined by the amount of fuel they can carry on board . In fact more than 1/3 of the fuel carried aboard by the satellites is wasted by these repositioning thrusters due to incomplete and inefficient combustion of the fuel such as hydrazine. The reason for the incomplete and inefficient combustion is that the on board ignitors wear out quickly and cease to perform effectively. Nano materials such as nano crystalline Tungsten-titanium diboride-copper composite are potential candidates for enhancing these ignitors life performance characteristics.
We have seen only the few applications of nano materials. Many new applications being discovered almost everyday . There are many other applications and uses which have yet to be covered. From the applications we can see that such a small material does wonder in all the fields of science. Their strength and physical chemical and mechanical properties show that their presence in varsity of applications. Really the materials are smart and even specific too. As we study their characteristics deeply we can enjoy the performance of these peculiar materials.