Cycle of the Universe

by : Jagat Singh



CYCLE OF THE UNIVERSE



As we see, there is great symmetry in nature. All systems are subject to acquire a most stable state of existence. This simple law governs all systems in nature. The most stable state that a system can have is minimum energy level state. All the events and sequence of events of nature are obeying this law. Nature is at work all the time to accomplish this job. When this job is accomplished, a drastic turnaround takes place and nature starts all over again. The birth, existence and the evolution of the universe is purely the result of this cycle. We have deciphered many of the secrets and principles of nature and they agree to this simple law.



New Look into Understanding Universe and Discovery of the Parent Pair:



Nature has a system of pairs, where members of a pair are opposite to one another in nature. These pairs play vital role in accomplishing the job of attaining minimum energy level state.

The most basic and parent pair in nature consists of heat energy and gravitational field. Heat energy and gravitational field are opposite in nature. Gravitational field has a quality to cool and bind things together, whereas heat energy has quality to warm and expand them apart. This is a pair from which whole universe emerges and to which every thing in universe returns.

On a large scale, cycle of nature, takes place between these two basic forms; heat energy, and gravitational field. Both co exist. When concentration of one grows, the concentration of other one decreases.

Vastly accepted theories of science, "big bang," and convertibility of mass and energy to one another" comply with this concept. Presence of microwave background radiations is the proof that "big bang" took place. Albert Einstein's famous energy and mass equation, E=mc?, is the revelation of secret of nature that mass and energy are convertible to one form from another. These discoveries are principles of nature, which we shall see, point towards the existence of the basic and parent pair consisting of gravitational field and heat energy.

New findings that follow from the discovery of the "basic pair" consisting of heat energy and gravitational field are-



a. New principle of matter formation. (here by matter is meant mass with a

component of gravitational field)

b. Upper mass limit of black holes and their disintegration.

Here two assumptions are made before proceeding to explain the new concepts as given above.

They are-

Assumption: 1



The beginning of the universe was triggered off with the big bang. Big bang was caused by the explosion of an enormous black hole whose size in mass was equal to the sum of the masses of all galaxies and invisible or dark matter of the present day universe. Big bang would not have been possible without any black hole. Infinite amount of energy could just not have come from nowhere. It is only on this assumption that we find a clue to think logically and scientifically of events that took place afterwards.

Assumption: 2



There are two elementary components of matter. (Here by matter is meant mass with a component of gravitational field) They are gravitational field and the heat energy. Out of these two, heat energy has relation to mass, E=mc?, where mass and energy are convertible to one another. Another component, gravitational field, gives matter its ability to attract matter or get attracted to other matter. Mass cannot exist independent of gravitational field. Only condition when the mass is independent of gravitational field is when it has converted to energy and is separated from it. If we take gravitational field component out of mass, remaining part will be heat energy.

According to general theory of relativity no material body can travel with velocity of light. Important prediction from this rule is that if at all we manage to accelerate a material body to the velocity of light, it will be annihilated and convert to heat and light energy. Only mass-less body can travel with velocity of light. Simple understanding is that resultant product (matter) of heat energy and gravitational field cannot have existence properties similar to the properties of members of the parent pair.



Big Bang and the Formation of Matter:



Before big bang, there was a black hole of infinite density mass and gravitational field. This enormously large black hole could not have come to existence from nothing. It might have had surrounding of heavenly bodies. It

strongly implies that there were and there still are other universes. But how did this black hole come into being? How did it decide to explode? Here is how these questions can be answered.

There are observable smaller black holes in our galaxy and universe. These black holes are decedents of heavenly bodies that were once upon a time shining hot stars. In a quest to acquire most stable state they cooled down and transformed into black holes. Black holes grow bigger by gobbling up the nearby heavenly bodies, stray matter, light and by joining with other black holes. This is a time consuming process. Bigger one black hole grows, bigger its reach becomes and more heavenly bodies it consumes. Gravitational field, with the increase in size of the black hole becomes stronger. This process goes on and on if all conditions remain favorable. But this process should have some limit or end. If lower mass limit of the black hole is 4.5 solar masses (approximately), upper mass limit of the black hole is equal to the mass of the whole matter of the universe. At this limit, black hole becomes so heavy that it no longer can hold its own weight. Infinite gravitational attraction at this point changes to gravitational repulsion. At this moment of change over, there is zero gravitational pull and zero gravitational repulsion. But this kind of situation can hold only with mass less particles like photons at some specified range of temperature. It is this condition, which causes the black hole of high-density mass to suddenly disintegrate and transform into heat energy consisting of high-energy photons and gravitational field consisting of gravitons. Big bang was one such event.

Not all the black holes can reach the final destination of big bang without meeting accidents on the way. If a sufficiently large black hole encounters the small material body, it will easily convert it to a part of its own. But if a black hole runs into a material body which is not a black hole and is bigger than what it can digest, then meeting of the two will be an explosion. This kind of explosions must be taking place in cosmos. Big black holes may be exploding to produce what appears to us as new galaxies.

All big stars and cosmic bodies of our galaxy will at one point of time turn into black holes, and then they will combine to form one single big black hole. Smaller stars and their planets will be gobbled up by these black holes on the way to becoming a single big black hole. Same thing will happen to all the galaxies. All these black holes, made from galaxies, will come together to form an ultimate big black hole whose mass will be equal to the mass of our universe. Then this black hole will disintegrate into a big bang. Formation of the black hole is the end and the big bang is the beginning of the universe.



Nature has a simple rule, and that is to acquire minimum energy level. However, nature has no much control over the participants in this game. For instance, a growing watermelon will uncontrollably grow against even tip of the knife and get pierced by it.

Black hole grows bigger and bigger despite the fact that it will explode when the upper mass limit is crossed, but it cannot stop the in falling matter in to it.

At big bang, almost all the matter was converted or separated into two basic forms; heat energy and gravitational field. Soon after the big bang, there was a ball of heat energy of very high temperature. (Above 10??K). At high temperature, heat energy and gravitational field do not interact with each other. At infinite temperature, gravitational attraction towards photons is zero and at zero heat energy level of black hole, the gravitational attraction towards photons is infinite.

Density of heat energy at the centre of big bang was enormous and it spread outwards almost symmetrically in all the directions. But as this heat ball expanded and heat energy started traveling into the vast space, its temperature dropped to lower value. This was because as the concentration of heat energy decreased gravitational field started to catch up with it. It is only within a short range of high temperature that gravitational field cannot interact with heat energy. Once out of this range gravitational field starts its influence on the heat waves as a very feeble drag. Heat energy continues its journey with constant speed but its energy and hence temperature decreases continuously due to this feeble gravitational drag. It is like slowly pulling a spring to a point of no return. Spring will get permanently deformed and will have less and less stored energy in it. This gravitational drag acts on the energy waves in such a direction which always opposes the propagation of energy waves. Farther the energy waves travel, stronger the effect of gravitational drag on them acts. Therefore temperature drop was faster at outer region than the central region of the heat energy ball.

Then one stage of lower temperature range came, first at the outer region, when gravitational field began interacting with the heat energy in a very different and special way. This also was a definite and short range of interaction. Although average temperature of the region was same everywhere but photons from which this heat energy was made, slightly differed from one another in energy levels.

The special interaction between heat energy and gravitational field can be understood better with the help of quantum theory of light and heat energy. According to this theory, heat energy or light energy (electromagnetic waves) is made up of small discrete quanta or photons. Photons are small discrete energy packets, which cannot be further, divided into sub parts. Alternatively, we can say that the photons are the elementary particles of energy. Photons have different levels of energy depending upon their source. Photons, according to quantum theory, behave like matter particles. As electromagnetic waves consist of discrete photons, symmetrically, gravitational field waves are made up of gravitons. Gravitons can be considered as the elementary particles of the gravitational field. Like photons, gravitons also have different energy levels.

Photons and gravitons act as members of the basic pair or parent pair within a specific range of temperature.

At the temperature and energy bound region of interaction, around the point of big bang, photons and gravitons started annihilating or combining with each other. In this process elementary particles of matter were produced. When particle and antiparticle of matter annihilate, heat energy and gravitational field are separated. When photons and gravitons annihilate or combine with each other fundamental or elementary particles of matter are created.

Particle and antiparticle pairs of matter are only pairs in nature which on annihilating convert to heat energy and gravitational field. Rest all pairs in nature are related to existence and formation of matter.

Heat energy or photons, could just not have precipitated into elementary particles of matter on its own without help of gravitons. This kind of transformation is just impossible without the pair whose members have qualities opposite in nature. Here high-energy photons combine with gravitons to acquire an instant lower state of energy. This is the first step that a photon takes towards attaining the ultimate stable state at minimum energy level. It makes absolute sense when we observe the final product; an elementary particle of matter, which has a component of gravitational field to attract other particles or get attracted to the other matter and a mass component to convert to heat energy.

Elementary particles thus produced could not be of equal mass and of same nature. This is because at the time of annihilation, gravitons and photons slightly had different energy levels. Different elementary particles like quarks and leptons are result of combination of gravitons and photons at different energy levels. Other than gravitational attraction, forces like strong and weak nuclear forces and electromagnetic forces are outcome of different energies of gravitons and photons at the time of annihilation or combination with each other. Gravity being the mother and primary force, other three forces are secondary offshoots of it.

These very hot and highly unstable elementary particles first combined to form protons and neutrons and attained lower energy state of existence. In later on stages, elements of lower atomic number such as hydrogen and helium were formed with the combination of protons, neutrons and electrons. Ocean of these atoms and molecules proceeded to evolve to form the present day universe over the period of nearly fifteen billion years. We have well documented science of evolution of universe after the big bang.



Range of Transformation:

For any mass at zero gravitational attraction, its temperature is infinite, in other words whole mass has been converted into energy. And at infinite gravitational attraction of black hole, temperature and heat energy content of the mass is absolute zero. Black holes may be at absolute zero or at almost absolute zero temperature.

There are two stages when the photons and the gravitons combine or annihilate. First stage is when the temperature and gravitational field concentration are very high and both are within a specific range of values called range of transformation. This stage was after the big bang. It lasted for few seconds when temperature was between 10??K and 109 K and energy density was between 4x107 and 4x105. Second stage is when the temperature is very low and the gravitational attraction is very high. This stage comes when the black hole whose mass is above 4.5 solar masses has formed.

At extremely low energy, or zero energy, photon converts to mass when they come in close vicinity of black holes. Logic is simple. What really happens to the photon when it has lost all its energy? Or what happens when the photon meets an infinite sink of absolute zero energy level and very high gravitational field? Here it just converts to elementary particle of matter by combining with gravitational field. This process goes on around the black holes. Most photons fall into the black holes and get converted to elementary particles of matter. However, there are some photons, which convert to elementary particles and just manage to escape at the boundaries (event horizons) of gravitational fields of black holes. It may appear to a distant observer that they are being emitted from the black hole.

Heat energy when absorbed by the matter does not cause any change in its mass. It is because heat or light energy does not have any mass so long as it is in the form of energy. We can add amount of energy to matter which is equivalent to some mass but it will not make any change in its mass. Similarly, when some hot body radiates heat and light energy its mass does not decrease. Nevertheless, when heat content of any material body increases its weight will decrease and vice versa. This is due to the fact that as the heat energy content of matter goes on increasing it will interact less and less with the gravitational field and hence its weight decreases. Simple logic is, we are adding antigravity element heat energy to the mass.

Heat energy and gravitational field only interact within a specified range of temperature to produce matter but feeble interaction is always on between gravitational field and heat energy. It is this reason which causes the photons to lose energy continuously when they travel through vacuum. Otherwise there is nothing in vacuum that can absorb energy of heat wave when it travels through it. It is very feeble and ever continuing gravitational drag that causes the photon to cool down. However this feeble interaction cannot result in matter formation. For matter formation we need very high temperature or black hole like strong gravitational field.

Red Shift:



As the gravitational drag on the energy waves or photons is always in the opposite direction of propagation it may be responsible for the red shift of the light coming from the distant galaxies. If there is some component acting in opposite direction on the propagation of heat energy waves, it can be considered equivalent to some pull on the waves in the opposite direction. This opposite pull in turn is equivalent to the movement of the energy source in the opposite direction. It is a very strong possibility that our universe is not expanding outwards with some critical rate. It is actually gravitational field at work which produces this effect. We may be observing an illusion.

Experimental Verification:

If high-energy beam of photons (gamma rays) be passed into the vacuum, a completely empty space, but filled with the gravitational field, there will be formation of elementary particles. But since the gravitational field in space is very low or thin we will need very high energy beam for production of elementary matter particle. Alternatively, we know that highest density of matter is inside the nucleus of an atom. Elements of higher atomic number such as iron which has highest nuclear density can be considered for our experiment. Gravitational field concentration is more at the place where matter density is high. Therefore gravitational field around the nuclei of iron atoms or any other high atomic number element will be nearly as high as around the black hole. Matter elementary particles precipitation will be easier very near around these nuclei when we direct high energy beam (gamma rays) at these nuclei. We will relatively need energy beam of lesser energy or of lower frequency.



Present day Limitation of Human Intelligence:

Capacity of human intelligence today is limited. We cannot understand where heat energy and gravitational field came from. Although we have understood almost everything that happened after the big bang, we still are blank about origin of heat energy and gravitational field. Even if these quantities are considered interchangeable with each other, at least origin of one of them has to be well defined. This origin is not yet understood. What exists in the space beyond our universe? If there are other universes in our neighborhood, what is beyond the cluster of these universes?

We need some time to answer these questions. As reach of our intelligence increases and technology advances further, we one day will overcome these obstacles also.



Summary:



Heat energy photons at high temperature are highly unstable and cannot remain in that state for long time. They combine with gravitational field (at a specific range of temperature) or gravitons to acquire a lower state of energy level. This is due to the interaction of constituents of "Parent Pair"; heat energy and gravitational field. But in this process matter is formed. Matter thus formed is at lower temperature but still hot enough to have a quest to cool down further. This matter acquires many forms (existence of our planet is one of them) and goes through many transitions while it journeys down to acquire the most stable state of existence i.e. the black hole. Although black hole is the most stable material body, it has one dangerous tendency to attract other matter and transform it into a part of its own. Thus, as the black hole grows bigger, its gravitational field becomes stronger. As the matter acquires more and more stable state by loosing heat energy, its gravitational field becomes stronger. In other words as heat energy component of matter decreases, gravitational field component increases. This process continues so long as the extreme limit is not reached. Then at extreme limit, event like big bang takes place and the whole mass separates into heat energy and gravitational field. Soon after heat energy photons start cooing down by forming matter with help of gravitational field and the entire cycle repeats all over again.



*****

Author:

Jagat Singh.

Village Ranguwa (Theda), P.O.Shawaga,

Via- Staun, Tehseel Paonta Sahib,

Distt. Sirmur, Himachal Pradesh.

PIN-173029, INDIA.

Copy Right Registration No: L-27012/2006, (INDIA)

Dated: 24-08-2006

Diary No.: 3818/2006-CO/L

References:

1-A Brief History of Time; By Stephen Hawking

2-The First Three Minutes; By Steven Weinberg