Marine Life in the Galapagos Islands

by : Eric Castro

The Galapagos Islands are one of the natural complexes most diverse of the world. Great quantity of formations of life as well as of representative species they are located here.

In the Galapagos Islands there are recognized 333 species different species of alga (35% of which are endemic). During El Niño Current others that grow better in tropical waters replaced many of the algae. This event changed the food chain.

In the Galapagos Islands 24 species of it is sea hedgehogs, 28 of marine stars, 30 of marine cucumbers, approximately 600 of mollusks, and more than 100 of crabs have been identified.

The blue marine star's colors (Phataria Unifascialis), the thorny black star's form (Ophiocoma aethiops), the phosphorescent red skin of the horse shell (Fasciolaria Princeps) and the quantity of hedgehogs pencils (Eucidaris thouarsii) will you fascinate while you dive. 31 species of corals have been reported on the reefs (30% of them are endemic). The Galapagos Islands have the same quantity and diversity of corals that other parts of the east of the Pacific. The corals congregate in some areas, mainly in Darwin and Wolf where more warm waters exist. Outside of these two congregations, don't hope to find big quantities of corals.

There are more than 300 species of fish (17% of them are endemic) in the islands. It is common to get to see big groups of Creole fish (foreigner or Paranthias colonus), of salema of black lines (Ojón or Xenocys jessiae), the palometas groups (Almaco Jacks or Seriola rivoliana), the barracudas (Sphyraena idiastes), the Moorish idols (Zanclus cornutus), and the old rainbows (dancing rainbow wrass or Thalassoma lucasanum).

It is possible that you see sea merry-go-rounds (or Hippocampus ingens) and black corals, a fish pipe (or Doryrhamphus excisus) inside a small crack and some bat fish (or Ogcocephalus darwini) spread on the sand; the toad fish (or Antennatus sanguineus) changing color for the sponges to their surroundings is more difficult of finding due to their size and to their camouflage properties.

In Galapagos it is easy to see the barnacles of Galapagos (Acanthemblemaria castroi) living inside old barnacles, the damsels yellow line protecting their garden of algae, wrasses cleaning other fish, sorcerers (Scorpaena plumieri) with the same form and color of the rocks, the fascinating giant damsels (Microspathodon dorsalis) with their points iridescent blue color and the poisonous tambuleros (Sphoeroides annulatus).

You will see many brown puntofino (Gymnothorax dovii) opening the mouth to breathe, congregations of garden eels (Taenioconger klausewitzi), and several species of Rays as the enormous mantarraya (or Blanket hamiltoni) that can end up reaching the seven meters.

There are two species of marine lions that you/they inhabit the Galapagos: the marine wolf (Zalophus californianus wollebaeki) and the hair seal (Wolf of two hair or Arctocephalus galapagoensis). A population of 80,000 individuals is considered. Don't forget your camera when you dive with snorkel to see them, but don't try to play them because they can bite.

Regarding the group of whales, the girlfriend whale (Balaenoptera Edeni) can be easily seen. You will also be able to see sperm whales (Sperm Whales or Physeter Macrocephalus), murderous whales (Orcinus Orca, Megaptera Novaeangliae), and others. If you look for whales, go to the areas of superficial waters. Diving with snorkel among the Galapagos can have contact with the whales; come closer from behind to them, don't make noise, neither sprinkle, you should stay in silence.

When navigating during the day, the bottlenose dolphins or Tursiups truncatus they swim in front of the ship and you will be able to take pictures.

To the common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) they like the waves caused by the ships to jump. You can swim while the bottlenose dolphins jump exactly in front of you, you can even wait to that pass below you. You can listen their sounds and to distinguish the mothers and the babies. The Chaffinches of Darwin and the theory of the Evolution  Thirteen species of chaffinches live in the Galapagos Islands, the famous archipelago visited for Darwin in 1835. The chaffinches possess a great variety of picks as much in their forms as in their sizes, each one adapted to their diet and particular lifestyle. The explanation given by Darwin was that all they are descending of an original couple of chaffinches, and that the natural selection caused the differences.

Surprisingly for some, this is the explanation given today for most of the modern creacionistas. Any change is not required ' evolutive' at all, and in any sense this contributes evidence some of transformations from-the-amoeba-until-the-man. Any genetic new information ifi the population progenitor would not have been introduced it has the enough variability (genetic potential) to explain these features varied in her descendants, the selection can cause the resulting adaptation, just as an easy example.

Let us say that some chaffinches arrived at the Galapagos Islands in which there was shortage of seeds, but where many worms lived under the barks of the trees. In a population in the one that there is a lot of variation, some will have longer picks, other shorter ones that the stocking. The birds that would have more information of the type ' i chop deep' they could survive with those larvas, and consequently it is more probable than they would transmit the information to their descendants, while the other ones would have died. This way, when acting the selection at the same time in other characteristics, a could arise ' chaffinch woodpecker'.

The same thing is observed in the artificial selection, where the diverse modern races of dogs are specialized than the population progenitor (it crossbreeds), but they are carriers of less genetic information and consequently they prepare of less potential for later selections (you a great Danish cannot engender starting from a Chihuahua). In all these types of changes, the chaffinches continue being chaffinches and the dogs dogs  The limits of the change are determined by the quantity of information that was present in a principle, starting from which the selection began. The creationists has proposed for some time such ' diferenciación through the selection' of the type native, to explain for example, the descendant of wolves, coyotes, dingos and other wild dogs coming from a couple exit of the Ark.

The anti-creacionists takes advantage of the question of the time. These insist that one needs much more time of the one allowed by the Writing. The artificial selection is quick, since the breeders act deliberately on each generation. The ' esteem-divination ' common of how long it was needed so that the chaffinches of Darwin radiated starting from their population progenitor it goes from one to five million years.

However, Peter Grant, professor of zoology of Princeton, recently gave to know some results of an intensive study that it lasted 18 years of all the chaffinches of the Galapagos Islands during which the natural selection was observed in action. For example, during the years of drought, when decreasing the provisions of small seeds for the chaffinches, the selection favored those that had bigger and deeper picks able to take the big seeds that were and this way to survive, that which made the population to vary in this sense  Although this is not very surprising, neither deep, the most interesting thing went the speed to which happened these changes To the observed rhythm, Grant it estimates, so single 1.

200 years they would be needed for ' transform' an insectivorous chaffinch in a chaffinch seeder. To transform it into a terrestrial chaffinch that is more similar, they would be required something like that as 200 years  It should be noticed that (although the article doesn't mention it) such quick changes cannot have relationship with the production of any new gene for mutation, but rather they are based on the described process, that is to say, to choose of among what already exists). In consequence it is untenable as evidence of (macro) true upward evolution - although to many frank students they are taught this example like ' evolution in action'.

On the other side, the real, observed evidence is that such a formation adaptative (descending) of several species starting from a created type can happen easily in some few centuries. Millions of years are not needed. This argument is strengthened by the fact that, after the Universal flood, the selective pressure would have been much more intense - for the quick migration toward the new empty niches, for the residual catastrophe and for the changing climate since the earth was settling and drying offFree Web Content, and for the radiation simultaneous adaptative of divergent species of food.