Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877 to 1938). Iqbal was born on 9 Nov 1877 in Punjab (Today's Pakistan ).

A renowned poet and philosopher, Iqbal was born into a religious, small merchant family, in Lahore, Punjab. He first studied in his hometown Government College and later, went to the University of Cambridge. He studied there between 1905 and 1908 and obtained a degree in Philosophy. Later in London, he studied law and became a lawyer. At the University of Munich, he obtained a Doctorate in Metaphysics. He was well versed in Islamic mysticism, which was then unknown in Europe.

On his return to India, he practised law but had deep interest in poetry. He became famous through both his Persian and Urdu classical poetry. He gave public recitals on his poetry.

He had toured Europe and he condemned both racism and imperialism in his speeches. In Aligarh in 1910, he stressed that Islam is a social and political ideal. In his speeches, he advocated Pan-Islamic ideas. He also praised in his poems, the bygone glories of Islam. He also spoke that everyone is a child of God and a life of action is better than ascetic resignation. Later Indian Muslim clergy also quoted him.

Iqbal in his poems expressed the anguish of Muslim powerlessness. In 1915, his long poem “The secret of self” written in Persian, appealed to the whole Muslim world. The poet advocated the ideals of brotherhood and justice. In 1932, he composed his masterpiece “The Song of Eternity” in Persian and his love poems in Urdu. Iqbal can be considered the greatest poet in Urdu and Persian languages in the 20th century.

In 1930, he worked with the All-India Muslim league. He advocated that Muslims should demand a separate state in India.

After a long illness, he died in April 1938 and is buried in front of the great Badshahi Mosque in Lahore. Two years after his death, Muslims in India clamoured for Pakistan, which became a reality in 1947.

Some claimed that Iqbal is the father of Pakistan and every year, Iqbal Day is observed in Pakistan. Sir Mohammad Iqbal was knighted in 1922 and is remembered as a great poet and nationalist.