Operation of Tcp and Ip

By: Jesse Miller

The total communications facility may consist of multiple networks, the constituent networks are usually refereed to as sub networks. Some sort of networks access protocol, such as Ethernet logic, is used to connect a computer to a sub network. This protocol enables the host to send data across the sub network to another host or, in the case of a host on another sub network, to a router.

IP is implemented in all of the end systems and the routers. It acts as a relay to move a block of data from one host, through one or more routers, to another host. TCP is implemented only in the end systems; it keeps track of the blocks of data to assure that all are delivered reliability to the appropriate application.

Every entity in the overall system must have a unique address. Two levels of addressing are needed. Each host on a sub network must have a unique global Internet address; this allows the data to be delivered to the proper host. Each process with a host must have an address that is unique within the host; this allows the host-to host protocol (TCP) to deliver data to the proper process. These latter addresses are known as ports.

Suppose that a process, associated with port 1 at host a, wishes to send a message to another process, associated with port2 at host B. The process at A hands the message down to TCP with instructions to send it to host B, port 2. TCP hands the message down to IP with instructions to send it to host B. IP need not be told the identity of the destination port. All it needs to know is that the data is intended for host B. Next, IP hands the message down to the network access layer with instructions to send it to router X (the first hop on the way to B).

To control this operation, control information as well as user must be transmitted. The sending process generates a block of data and passes this to TCP. TCP may break this block into smaller pieces to make more manageable.

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To each of these pieces, TCP appends control information known as the TCP header, forming a TCP segment. The control information is to be used by the peer TCP protocol a TCP segment. The control information is to be used by the peer TCP protocol entity at host B.

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